Minggu, 29 April 2012


(Early War)

The first war with the Dutch Hasnuddin occurs at the age of 3 years. Years 1631 to 1634 the fleet of Gowa and Ternate to attack each other with the Dutch fleet in the waters of Maluku. King of Gowa in 1634 sent a fleet of 100 boats of war to help the people of Ambon Ambon against the Dutch who destroyed the clove trees in the Moluccas and the nutmeg.
Gowa king is obliged to protect the royal allies in Ambon. War is known as Hongi war. A year after that the Dutch sent 12 ships to the waters of Makassar and started shooting at the fort Galesong. Fortunately, a year before an earthen fort had been altered and made from stone, while the fleet of boats and ships of war have left the waters of Gowa Makassar as a tactic to avoid clashes. Dutch attack was a total failure.
Dutch Company desires to conquer Gowa mengusai and getting stronger. Various means are used. In June 1637 the Dutch Company, led the Governor-General Anthony Van Diemen had made an agreement with the Kingdom of Gowa. Van Diemen requested that the King of Gowa ban Portuguese and English trade in Makassar, but the request was rejected by Sultan Alauddin. The Dutch have not dilated to live and stay in Makassar. 
At that time King of Gowa to receive foreign guests at his palace in the fort contained Somba Opu.

(Fortress of Defense)

Siege several times by the Dutch Company on the coast of Makassar add confidence that the Dutch Company at a time will attack and carry out his intention to seize and conquer the kingdom of Gowa. Dutch Company does not monopolize the spice trade from embarrassment. Sultan Hasanuddin that time it has often been the ambassador of the Kingdom of Gowa and take care of defense with the support of the Kingdom of Gowa Karaeng Pattingaloang Mangkubumi began to strengthen the forts along the coast.
There are three 3-reinforced fortress and cannon fitted. Somba Opu the main defense, and became the residence of the Sultan, 12 feet thick. The fort is fitted with a large cannon, dubbed "Son Mangkasara" and there are 270 other small guns. Cannon "Children Mangkasara" was created in 1593 with a length of 3 meters and a diameter of 41.5 cm mouth opening and weighs 500kg (11,000 pound).
During the war between the Gowa and the Netherlands took place, following years of Sultan Hasanuddin Mariso then build another fort, the Son of Gowa and the Gowa kale and several more in the area Bantaeng fort and also a trench that is 3 and a half kilometers between Binanga and Ujung Tanah Beru.
Strengthen the fortress city of Makassar is lined beach of north keselatan: Tallo (Mangngara 'Bombang), Fort Ujungpandang or Ford Rotterdam, Somba Opu and Fort Barombong. There is no longer significant between Tallo with a small tip of land fort, between Castle no longer significant with Fort Somba Opu and Panakkukang Barombong small fort there, which is a small castle of the king's resting place.
Somba Opu, as a place of residence of the King, also protected by a large fort on the east by the name of the Son of Gowa, whereas to the east of the fort there is a fort Tamalate Children Gowa (Ringmuur Van Het Gowa).

(Time of War of Resistance)

Sultan Hasanuddin as King of Gowa kingdom to own an obligation to the friends of his subordinates, from along the coast of the island of Sulawesi to the Moluccas. The only obstacle to mastering the Dutch trade in the Moluccas is the kingdom of Gowa and its fleet. For over 200 years the fleet has been attacking each other. The Netherlands has the vessels and war supplies of good, while the soldiers and sailors fleet of the Kingdom of Gowa has high morale and are not afraid to die because of cultural siri 'na pacce rooted fighters hearts heart Gowa Kingdom and Aru, or oath of allegiance to the soldiers of Gowa.
Year 1645 was a year full of trials for the Sultan Hasanuddin, not quite a year to the throne, a brave and wise Mangkubumi I Mangngada 'Cinna Karaeng Pattingaloang died. This trial does not dampen the determination of Sultan Hasanuddin, Karaeng Karunrung Karaeng Son succeeded his father as Pattingaloang up Mangkubumi Gowa kingdom.
Two-day war with the Dutch forces in April 1655 in Buton led by the Sultan Hasanuddin.Stronghold of the Dutch Company in Buton been won and 35 Dutch people were killed in this battle. Dutch realized that the war with the Sultan Hasanuddin and has cost a great loss, the Somba Opu diutuslah ambassador to represent the Dutch governor-general in Batavia. The envoy named Willem Van der Beek and accept the agreement dated December 28, 1655 which contains: "Forces in the Makassar Maluku on the pull back, exchange of prisoners of war. Holland promised, when the kingdom of Gowa one of the nation at war with the Dutch Company should not participate interference. enemy is not the enemy of the kingdom of Gowa Netherlands ".
In 1657 the Netherlands Willem Bastingh sent again because they do not like to see trade between Hitu, Seram and Makassar went well, because they want to monopolize the trade. The messenger carrying ominous ultimatum to the Sultan Hasanuddin. The ultimatum was rewarded with a letter that also pitched hard. Sultan Hasanuddin not give up. More fiery spirits, each equipped fortress. Dutch Company to choose war, prepared a large fleet of 31 warships and 2700 trained soldiers led by Johan van Dam and assisted by Johan Truytman. This war lasted for almost 2 years old. Dated June 12, 1660 at Fort Panakkukang fell to the Dutch.
With the spirit rather die than surrender to the Dutch, Sultan Hasanuddin troops fought for two days, more than 2000 people expelled from Makassar and Portuguese fleet was destroyed. Portuguese by the Dutch people are sent to the island of Timor, from both sides fell many of the dead and wounded.
After the truce was made. Peace talks held. Karaeng Popo and number the kingdom of Gowa nobles went to Batavia to negotiate. The result is an agreement that harms the kingdom of Gowa. The treaty called the Treaty of Batavia that contains:Makassar should not intervene matter of Buton, Ternate and Ambon.Banda, Buton, Maluku, Manado should not be approached by the people of Makassar.Portuguese people are prohibited from trading in Makassar.Perhaps the Dutch Settled in Makassar.Sultan Hasanuddin was forced to sign the agreement. However, this agreement did not last long.
The former has not lost the war with Holland, the King Bone began fighting rebel with the kingdom of Gowa. La Tenri Tatta to Erung titled Whitewater Palakka, my childhood sepermainan Sultan Hasanuddin who led the rebellion. However, it can break the Gowa royal army uprising on October 11, 1660. Whitewater Palakka with 4000 people and the troops withdrew to Buton protection there. 
because at that time the Sultan of Buton had been allied with the Dutch.

(Breaking the Political Glass)

The Netherlands has a way to conquer your opponent. Kingdom-the kingdom of the fragmented archipelago pecahdiadu each other. Whitewater Palakka arrival in Batavia was warmly welcomed by the Dutch Company. Losses suffered by the Dutch to beat Sultan Hasanuddin quite a lot and take a long time already. Gowa had the opportunity to conquer the open, Whitewater Palakka can compete with the Sultan Hasanuddin. The civil war could be done.
Welcome to Arug Palakka very festive. Angke in the Batavia area given to Whitewater Palakka residence with his followers. Sultan Hasanuddin very sad to hear that.Preparation has been done. Fort-span is fixed. Merian and have added tool of war, soldiers were also added. Meanwhile the Dutch had prepared a large fleet, a blow to the kingdom of Gowa terakgir will soon be launched.
In 1662 the Dutch ship De Walvis enter the waters of Makassar without notice. Coast guards intercept and perangpun occurred, 16 shoots Merian confiscated. Dutch party demanding the return of the cannon. Dutch then began to blow civil war. In 1664, the Sultan of Ternate, Sultan of Buton and Whitewater Palakka gathered in a meeting in Batavia.
They have to fight the Sultan Hasanuddin, and the Netherlands will provide assistance.Sultan Hasanuddin already know how the Dutch, the leniency shown karen aperang brother should be avoided. Sultan Hasanuddin want peace but asks the Netherlands to the Bone, Buton and Seram not dianak emaskan. But the Dutch had intended to destroy the kingdom of Gowa.
To prepare for the great war against the Dutch, Sultan Hasanuddin to subdue the kingdom who have been persuaded by the Dutch. Buton should be released first, Sultan Hasanuddin ordered to prepare an expedition to the east. 700 war ships and 20,000 soldiers under the command of Admiral Alimuddin Karaeng Bontomarannu along the Milky Sultan and Raja Luwu who have been appointed as the kingdom of Gowa rear admiral leading the flotilla.
Buton the end of October 1666 had been occupied by Admiral Karaeng Bontomarannu, but Buton be freed by the Dutch fleet led by Admiral Speelman and Whitewater Palakka who took part in the fleet. 
The Netherlands has managed to pit between the kingdoms of the archipelago in the eastern part of that fight each other.

(Outdoor War)

Meeting of the Dutch colonial authorities in Batavia on October 5, 1666 decided to immediately conquer and seize the kingdom of Gowa Makassar. Dutch fleet led by Cornelius Speelman helped by Whitewater Palakka and Captain Jongker of Manipa and Dutch allies. The fleet set out from Batavia, November 24, 1666 dengankekuatan the magnitude of 21 pieces of large warships 600 Dutch soldiers, 400 soldiers and Captain Jongker Palakka Whitewater. The fleet arrived at the front landscape Somba Opu on December 15, 1666.In the city of Makassar in the center of the capital city of Gowa and areas along the coast to be tense. Waiting times of the Dutch attack. The foreign merchants who lived there to stop their activities and make the protection. All the cannon and troops around the fort was ready, the food was prepared for the preparation of war a few months, along the coast of Tallo to Bantaeng popular resistance forces are well prepared.The only thing that is feared is the Sultan Hasanuddin Bone troops who are in the defense area of ​​Gowa who had rebelled, and the fleet of 700 ships under the command of Admiral Karaeng Bontomarannu still in Buton.Tense moments Speelman sent envoys to the Sultan Hasanuddin, the messenger bringing the demand that Sultan Hasanuddin give up and pay for war damages in the Netherlands earlier. Speelman demand is just an excuse to launch an attack. Sultan Hasanuddin answered the letter by saying "If we are attacked, we will defend ourselves and fight back with all our existing capabilities. We were right on the part. We want to defend the truth and independence of our country."When the awaited finally arrived. Early morning on 21 December the fleet hoisted the red 1666Bendera Speelman war. Dutch cannons start spewing bullets, gunpowder smoke filled udarapun. Gowa spirit of resistance soldiers and the burning fire. Forces stormed a small boat approached the Dutch warship. With protected by heavy downpours fleet of war boats ant kingdom of Gowa's starting to hit close to the core fleet of war Speelman. Speelman menhgundurkan from Somba Opu to leave the south coast.On the south coast Laikang Makassar, landing troops and Whitewater Palakka Speelman tried to have a landing. Gowa forces and people have been waiting with unyielding spirit. Forces to rout the invaders made by him. Dated December 24, 1666, Speelman fleet retreated and left the beach Laikang, sailed south and landed troops in Bantaeng next day. Commercial boats that crowded the shore when it was hit and sunk.Bantaeng and 30 surrounding villages burned, did not escape the kingdom of Gowa also participate rice burned.Gowa royal army stormed and raged perangpun fight one on one place. Inflicted heavy casualties on both sides. After a day and night Speelman fought back and pulled all its troops boarded the ship. Speelman decided to confront the forces of Sultan Hasanuddin Kings Buton, Ternate and Bone to reduce losses on the part of them.The news of the spy Speelman also informed that the Gowa royal core fleet under Admiral pimpinann Karaeng Bontomarannu still in Buton with 700 ships perangnnya.This is an opportunity to destroy the sea power of the Sultan Hasanuddin.Date of January 1, 1667 Speelman fleet arrived in Buton and directly hit the fleet Karaeng Bontomarannu already exhausted face Buton troops on the ground. Finally Karaeng Bontomarannu surrendered unconditionally to Speelman on the 4th of January 1667. This victory was celebrated Speelman. To the Sultan Buton, the Dutch gave gifts 100 ringgit a year.Speelman fleet sailed to Ternate. Whitewater pasukannnya Palakka send as many as 2000 people to the bone to form a new army for the preparation of Gowa nest. Month of June 1667 with the Sultan Mandarsyah Speelman carrying pasuka Ternate, and Tidore Bacan join forces and Captain Jongker Palakka Whitewater. War broke out on July 7 after about 7,000 troops suddenly attacked Gowa. Four days later the Dutch fleet sailed toward the center of the kingdom of Gowa. July 19, Makassar waters are covered by the Dutch warship. Somba Opu already under siege from the sea.

(Specify War)

Decisive war has arrived. The smell of gunpowder and blood filled the air. Somba Opu the center of the kingdom of Gowa utam defense directly led by the Sultan Hasanuddin and Sultan Raja Harun Al Rashid Tallo. Karaeng Bontosunggu lead Ujungpandang fort and led the defense in the Popo Karaeng Panakkukang fort.

Dated August 19, 1667 morning, the fort was attacked by a cannon Galesong Dutch troops, supply of rice in this attack the kingdom of Gowa in Galesong successfully burned the Netherlands. Day after day the battle raged. Speelman at the beginning of September 1667 transferring his attention. In 6000 the land forces with Captain Poolman Whitewater Palakka Galesong and Barombong attack. With a large cannon distance Gowa's troops drove the fleet Speelman. On the ground forces was repelled Palakka Whitewater.
This makes Speelman requested assistance from Batavia. Dutch sent five warships under the command of Captain P. Dopun. Dated October 22, 1667 Fleet Speelman and tightly surrounded Dupon Makassar. With the big guns, the fort Barombong burglarized. Speelman troops landed in Galesong assisted Palakka Whitewater.Somba Opu under siege from the sea and land. A very fierce battle between the forces of Gowa and Bone, Ternate, Buton and the Moluccas, the victim fell from the nation itself is pitted against the Netherlands.
Both sides have been very tired. November 5, 1667 Speelman reported to Batavia that the army was very tired, morale slumped. 182 soldiers and 95 matros sick. Forces Buton, Bugis Ternate and abdominal pain were also attacked. Speelman sent for more supplies and troops. Sultan Hasanuddin forces also experienced the same thing. Battle for months, and the siege of the fort is very worrisome and troubling Sultan Hasanuddin.After four days of fighting, the Dutch seized the fort Barombong, but the spirit of the spirit of Gowa warriors still smoldering. Sultan Hasanuddin still able to continue the war.
Sultan Hasanuddin known wise and prudent. He felt sad at having to fight against his own family. Whitewater Palakka La Tenri Tatta to Erung was like his own siblings.Speelman then propose peace. Sultan Hasanuddin consider that bloodshed among the Makassar and Bugis must be stopped.
Continue the war will only benefit the Netherlands. Negotiations between Speelman and Sultan Hasanuddin Bungaya held near the fort which was captured Barombong Netherlands. After repeated negotiations, then on Friday, November 18, 1667, achieved a peace agreement, known as "Ri Cappaya Bungaya" or Bungaya agreement. This agreement did not last long because the kingdom of Gowa burdensome. Speelman left to the fort no longer significant and was renamed "Fort Rotterdam". 
Speelman also prepare the fort for the defense and attack, because of his belief that the agreement will be canceled Bungaya.

(Last War)

Tallo Sultan Raja Harun Al Rashid, Karaeng Lengkese, and Whitewater Matowa Bungaya Wajo not accept the agreement. Withdrawn its troops, their determination remains. "Only a body that can give up". Karaeng Karunrung urges Sultan Hasanuddin Bungaya cancel the Agreement. Finally, war broke out again on 21 April 1668. Karaeng Karunrung Ujungpandang attack the fort (Fort Rotterdam). Day after day, month after month the war continued to rage.
In diary entries written Speelman, among others: "The battle was fierce. Many Dutch people dead or injured, Whitewater Palakka also suffered injuries. Every day 7 or 8 of the Dutch soldiers were buried. Speelman fell ill. 5 doctors, 15 blacksmiths were killed.energy assistance from Batavia only 8 people who are still healthy. Within 4 weeks, 139 people died in the fort Ford Rotterdam and 52 people were killed on the ship ".
Sultan Hasanuddin ordered the restoration of the damaged fortress. Dated August 5, 1668, Karaeng Karunrung took his army stormed Fort Rotterdam. At this attack almost killed Palakka Whitewater. Speelman requested assistance from Batavia. Troops and war equipment from Batavia arrived in April 1669. Barrel of the cannon was made and directed to the fort Somba Opu. The trenches of the fortress of defense to the Somba Opu been made, the preparation of the Netherlands is ripe.
Finally, on June 15, 1669 troops attacked the fort Somba Opu Speelman. The battle lasted day and night. Dutch cannon fired over 30,000 rounds into the fort seeds Somba Opu. Patriot Gowa kingdom remains a staunch resistance to the attack on the Dutch and the hail of bullets.
After the war during the past 10 days and nights, then on June 24, 1669 the entire fortress Somba Opu occupied Holland. Never an approximately 272 big guns and small cannon termasu sacred "Son Mangkasara" deprived Speelman. Sultan Hasanuddin retreated to the fortress Kale Gowa in Maccini Sombala and Karaeng Karunrung Bontoala left his palace in Gowa child back to the Citadel.
Somba Opu then razed to the ground, thousands of kilos of ammunition blew up the fort is 12 feet thick. Flushed air and ground as if an earthquake. The bodies were lying everywhere. Charred burnt gunpowder explosion and fire that licked. Somba Opu destroyed the entire palace.
Sultan Hasanuddin lost the war, but in recognition of the Netherlands, the battle is the most powerful and largest and longest time-consuming than was ever experienced on earth Dutch archipelago at that time. Sultan Hasanuddin and his troops nicknamed "Rooster of the East" because of his zeal to persist.

1631-1670 sultan hasanuddin - 684x1014px

By: Serpihan Serbuk Jiwa